Bicara poligami…(15)

Ada seorang ustaz, da’ie, harakiyy, pernah berkata utk memahami syariat poligami di dalam Islam biasanya orang yg berumur 40 tahun ke atas. Saya menambah… umur 37 thn, 38 thn pun boleh memahaminya juga.

Saya bimbang sebenarnya bila mendengar perkataan tidak rela, tidak suka, benci, menyampah, meluat, ttg syariat poligami ini.

Misalan yg ingin saya utarakan di sini spt berikut:

Saya tidak rela ayah saya mengamalkan poligami, sebab saya tidak suka syariat poligami. Kenapa tidak suka syariat poligami sebab ayah saya tidak layak utk berpoligami. Sebab apa ayah saya tidak layak berpoligami sebab dia masih kurang penglibatannya dalam dakwah. Jadi dia masih tidak layak utk berpoligami sehinggalah ayah saya menjadi seorang da’ie yang komited, yang taat beribadah macam ‘alim ulama’. Apa syarat poligami sebagaimana yang Allah Taala nyatakan di dalam Al-Quran? Allah Taala berfirman sekiranya kamu boleh berlaku adil kamu boleh mengahwini wanita-wanita dua, tiga, atau empat. Sekiranya kamu takut tidak boleh berlaku adil kahwini seorang sahaja.

Kenapa kamu tidak rela? Sebab kamu benci kepada syariat poligami. Sebab kamu selalu tonton di dalam TV, filem banyak keburukan ttg poligami. Sebab apa kamu kata syariat poligami buruk sebab kamu tak jumpa contoh yang baik. Mungkin sebab kamu tak baca sirah Islam, bagaimana terdapat banyak contoh2 para sahabat Baginda, tabi’in dan banyak lagi yang menunjukkan contoh yg baik. Kamu tak yakin apa yg Allah Taala turunkan iaitu syariat poligami? Kamu tak baca Al-Quran surah Al-Nisaa’ ayat 3? Atau kamu skip (langkah) saja ayat itu dan baca ayat2 yg lain saja? Bolehkah kamu tinggalkan satu ayat di dalam Al-Quran sebab kamu tidak suka syariat itu? Jawapannya sudah tentu tak boleh sebab kita WAJIB beriman kepada Al-Quran keseluruhannya.

Nasihat saya: Belajarlah daripada guru/ustaz yg ikhlas dan berpengalaman…ilmu bukan semata-mata melalui buku tetapi banyaknya datang dari pengalaman hidup.

Marilah kita sama-sama bertaubat sebelum kita dipanggil pulang oleh Allah Taala dalam keadaan kita membenci syariatnya. Astaghfirullah, astaghfirullah, astaghfirullah…

Does the Qur’an Disrespect Women?

Question and Answer Details

Name of Questioner

Anonymous   – Afghanistan

 

Title

Does the Qur’an Disrespect Women?

 

Question

The Qur’an says that  a woman is like a field for you, so go to them in every way you like. Does that mean that the woman is an object for the man, and that the woman is only there for the man to have intercourse and fun with? Why is the woman a field for the man? Why does the Qur’an most of the time speak to men and not to women as well?

 

Date

10/Jan/2008

 

Name of Mufti

`Abdel Khaliq Hasan Ash-Shareef

Topic

Misconceptions

Answer

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.


All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.


Dear questioner, thank you for your question.
 
 

 

 

To understand the descriptions mentioned in the Qur’an correctly, one ought to understand the contexts and  topics in which these descriptions are mentioned, and above all understand the language of the Qur’an. As for the specific example you mentioned in your question, the Qur’an described women as a ’tilth’; it did not refer to them as an object. Rather, they were described as such in the context of stating what is permissible and impermissible between a husband and his wife during intercourse. Second, when the Qur’an uses ‘masculine address’ it does not exclude women nor does it degrade them in any way, as one of the original usages of  ‘masculine address’ in the Arabic language is to address a general mass that includes both men and women.
 

 

In response to your question, Sheikh `Abdel Khaliq Hassan Ash-Shareef, an Egypt-based renowned scholar and da`iyah, says,

 


This is not the only way  Allah the Almighty described women in the Glorious Qur’an. Describing them in a certain way does not mean this is the only way they are described. Allah the Almighty says in the Qur’an:

 

[They are your garments and ye are their garments.] (Al-Baqarah 2: 187)
[How can ye take it (back) after one of you hath gone in unto the other, and they have taken a strong pledge from you?](An-Nisaa’  4: 21)
[And of His signs is this: He created for you helpmeets from yourselves that ye might find rest in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy. Lo! Herein indeed are portents for folk who reflect.] (Ar-Rum 30: 21)

As you can see, this  is not the only description of women in the Qur’an.
In addition, you have to understand the context in which they were described as a ’tilth’. Allah the Almighty says,[Your women are a tilth for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth as ye will, and send (good deeds) before you for your souls, and fear Allah, and know that ye will (one day) meet Him. Give glad tidings to believers, (O Muhammad).] (

Al-Baqarah 2: 223)
To understand the context of this verse, you should  read the verse before it which states,[They question thee (O Muhammad) concerning menstruation. Say: It is an illness, so let women alone at such times and go not in unto them till they are cleansed. And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allah hath enjoined upon you. Truly Allah loveth those who turn unto Him, and loveth those who have a care for cleanness.] (

Al-Baqarah 2: 222)
Allah the Almighty described women as such in the context of talking about menstruation, stating what is permissible and what is not during intercourse between a husband and his wife. Therefore, you should not take this out of  context to draw such a generalization.
With regard to your question about why the Qur’an talks to men and not to women, it is said in the Glorious Qur’an,[And the believers, men and women, are protecting allies one of another; they enjoin the right and forbid the wrong, and they establish worship and they pay the poor-due, and they obey Allah and His messenger. As for these, Allah will have mercy on them. Lo! Allah is Mighty, Wise.] (

At-Tawbah 9: 71) Women are not excluded in any way whatsoever.
Moreover, one of the original usages of ‘masculine address’ in the Arabic language is to address a general group that includes both men and women.  Therefore,  one ought to understand the language of the Qur’an first before drawing any conclusions.
 

 

 

Related Questions

Are Women Equal to Men in Reward and Punishment?

The Status of Woman in Islam

Can Muslims Celebrate Christmas?

Are Women Inferior to Men?

Are Women Intellectually and Spiritually Inferior?

Was Eve Behind Adam’s Expulsion from Paradise?

The Reward of Women in Paradise

 
   

 

Allah Almighty knows best.

Source: http://www.islamonline.net/

The Cosmic “Smoke”

The Cosmic “Smoke” *

In the first third of the 20th century, astronomers noticed the expansion of the universe, the thing that had previously aroused a lot of controversy before scientists could admit it. The glorious Qur’an referred to this fact more than 1,400 years ago:

[We [Allah] have built the heaven with (Our) Hands and surely We are indeed extending (it) wide.] (Adh-Dhariyat 51:47)

This verse was revealed at a time the whole world believed that the universe is stable and unchanging. This thought prevailed until the mid-20th century when astronomers discovered that the universe is expanding and its galaxies are getting distant from us and from each other at almost the speed of light (300,000 km/s). Besides, all the mathematical equations and the laws of physics support what astronomers found. Hence, astronomers, theoretical physicists, and astrophysicists assume that if we went back in time, we would find that all the visible and invisible forms of matter and energy in the cosmos must have been compressed in an elementary minute body whose size is almost zero, and where the dimensions of time and place contract.

 

This elementary body was in a state of density and heat that the human mind can hardly imagine and where there is no place for the laws of physics. This elementary body exploded, by Allah’s command, in what is called in the Qur’an Al-Fatq, which refers to the phase when the Earth and heavens exploded after being a one solid mass, and by scientists as the Big Bang. Thus, the Qur’an is the first to mention this great cosmic event exceeding any human knowledge; Almighty Allah says:

 

[And have not the ones who disbelieved seen that the heavens and the Earth were an integrated (mass), then We unseamed them, and of water We have made every living thing? Would they then not believe?(Al-Anbiyaa’ 21:30)

When an elementary body with these characteristics explodes, it turns into a cloud of smoke from which the Earth and all the celestial bodies were created. Again, the Qur’an exceeds all the human knowledge when it mentions the phase of “smoke” before 1,400 years, as follows:

 

[Say (O Muhammad), “Is it true that, indeed, you surely disbelieve in (The One) Who created the Earth in two days, and do you set up compeers to Him?” That is The Lord of the worlds. And He made therein anchorages (i.e. mountains) from above it, and He blessed it and determined therein its nourishments in four days, equal (i.e. all these four days were equal in the length of time) to the questioners (about its creation). Thereafter, He leveled Himself to the heaven (while) it was smoke, then said to it and to the Earth, “Come up (you two) willingly or unwillingly!” They (both) said, “We come up willingly.” So He decreed them as seven heavens in two days, and He revealed in every heaven its Command. And We have adorned the lowest heaven with lamps, and (set Angels) preserving them. That is the determining of the Ever-Mighty, the Ever-Knowing.(Fussilat 41:9-12)

On the 8th of November, 1989, NASA launched its Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite in an orbit that is 600 km away from Earth and the effect of clouds and pollutants in the lower layers of the Earth’s atmosphere. Ten light years away from Earth, COBE sent millions of photos and information about the remnants of the smoke that resulted from the Big Bang. It was a phase of a dark smoke that had prevailed in the universe before the heavens and the Earth were created.

 

Allah, Exalted be He, has said 1,400 years ago:

 

[Thereafter, He leveled Himself to the heaven (while) it was smoke, then said to it and to the Earth, “Come up (you two) willingly or unwillingly!” They (both) said, “We come up willingly.”]

Although we believe that these events are far from being known to us, as Almighty Allah says:

 [In no way did I make them to witness the creation of the heavens and the Earth, neither the creation of themselves; and in no way would I take to Me the misleaders as supporters.(Al-Kahf 18:51)

Yet, the constancy and continuity of the cosmic laws help us somehow to create a right image about these unknown events in spite of the limitedness of human senses and mental abilities on one hand and the limitedness of our time and space, on the other.

 

Besides, things such as long-range missiles, their satellites, and the sensitive recording and measuring devices helped a lot in forming an image of the cosmic dust (smoke) resulting from the Big Bang, whose remnants were found at the far end of the visible universe (up to 10 billion light years away). This served as evidence that the Qur’anic description “smoke” has not been chosen haphazardly and that it accurately describes the state of the universe before the creation of Earth and heavens.

 

Astrophysics and the Cosmic Smoke

After the Big Bang, the whole universe turned into a cloud of smoke from which the Earth and heavens were later created. Physical calculations tell us that the size of the universe before the Big Bang was almost zero, as both matter and energy were greatly compressed and the dimensions of time and place had no existence. After the explosion of this elementary body (the Big Bang), it turned into a ball of radiation and elementary particles that continued to expand and cool at a great speed until it turned into a cloud of smoke.

 

These physical calculations suggested that the heat of the universe during the first few seconds after the Big Bang was ranging from trillion Kelvin degrees up to billions of Kelvin degreesThis cloud of smoke consisted of photon, electron, and neutron particles and their antiparticles.

If the universe did not continue to cool and expand steadily and accurately, the elementary particles of the matter would have annihilated one another and the universe would have vanished. But, Allah, Who perfectly created everything, has maintained it.

A Qur’anic verse reads:

 

[His Command, if He wills a thing, is only to say to it,  “Be!” and it is.(Ya-Sin 36:82)

 


* Excerpted with modifications from the original article The Cosmic “Smoke”.

By  Dr. Zaghlool El-Naggar

Earth Sciences Professor — Egypt

 

 

 

Academy of Sciences. Member of the Geological Society of London, the Geological Society of Egypt and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Fellow of the Institute of Petroleum, London. Prof. Naggar is the author/co-author of many books and more than 40 research papers in the field of Islamic Thought, Geology, General Science and Education. He was awarded by the Ministry of Education in Egypt the top “Secondary Education Award” as well as the seventh Arab Petroleum Congress Best Papers Award in 1970. Elected a member of the IAS Council (1994 and 1999), Prof. Naggar is currently working at the Arab Development Institute.

 

SPAQ 1

Program spaq ini memang bagus. Alhamdulillah, penulis telah berjaya menamatkan pengajian spaq secara modul ini lebih kurang dua tahun yang lalu dengan izin Allah. Baru-baru ini penulis telah menghadiri konvokesyen bagi meraikan kejayaan pelajar-pelajar yang telah berjaya menamatkan pengajian samada dengan memperolehi sijil penuh atau sijil penyertaan.
Dalam program ini, pelajar tidak perlu malu untuk duduk sama-sama di dalam kelas walaupun rakan-rakan sekelas jauh lebih tua dan senior. Atau rakan-rakan yang mempunyai kedudukan yang tinggi di dalam masyarakat seperti pensyarah universiti dan sebagainya. Apa yang penting ialah konsep menuntut ilmu dari buaian hingga ke liang lahad diikuti. Penulis melihat pengajian Al-Quran secara formal begini memberi peluang kepada yang sibuk dengan kerjaya ataupun mungkin yang telah pencen belajar mendalami ilmu Al-Quran dan seterusnya mempraktikkan di dalam kehidupan seharian. Inilah yang diucapkan oleh Pengarah APIUM semasa majlis konvo tersebut.
Pelajar juga didedahkan dengan latihan secara praktikal dengan tenaga pengajar yang berpengalaman seperti imam-imam hafiz di masjid-masjid. Tidak perlu rasa malu kerana itulah belajar namanya. Tidak kira muda atau tua kita masih boleh excel atau cemerlang di dalam menuntut ilmu Al-Quran, yang terpenting keazaman kita untuk menghadiri kelas-kelas spaq tanpa segan silu.
Ada soalan daripada pelajar bertanya kepada ustaz berkenaan dengan hafazan. Adakah faktor pemakanan menjadi isu utama di dalam menghafaz Al-Quran? Ustaz menjawab, cuba lihat orientalis barat mereka minum arak, mereka makan khinzir dan bermacam-macam maksiat lagi yang mereka lakukan tetapi mereka boleh membaca Al-Quran dan memdalami bahasa Arab. Begitulah yang penting kita mahu ke tak mahu mempelajari Al-Quran, kalau begitu sikap orang bukan Islam mempelajari Al-Quran mereka berjaya menguasai ilmu tersebut tetapi mereka tidak mendapat hidayah daripada Allah atau hidayah belum sampai kepada mereka.
Jadi tunggu apa lagi angkat telefon dan berhubunglah dengan Akademi Pengajian Islam Universiti Malaya untuk mendaftarkan diri anda bagi mengikuti SPAQ. Semoga kita diberi taufiq dan hidayah oleh Allah untuk terus beramal dengan ajaran-ajaranNya.

Tiga ta’

Kereta mewah kebanggaan manusia...Kebanyakan manusia hidup di dunia ini mengejar tiga perkara ini. Penulis namakan dengan 3 ta; wanita, harta & takhta. Kecuali orang-orang yang benar-benar beriman dengan yakin, mereka menjadikan 3 perkara ini untuk mendekatkan diri dengan Allah.

Wanita, penulis meletakkannya di tangga teratas kerana banyak sebab. Di antara sebab-sebabnya ialah godaan wanita adalah sesuatu cubaan yang berat bagi kaum lelaki. Banyak sejarah yang diketahui dari dahulu sehingga sekarang adalah berkaitan dengan cubaan wanita. Sila rujuk ayat Al-Quran surah ali-imran ayat 14.

Harta juga menjadi rebutan manusia kerana dengan harta manusia memperolehi pelbagai nikmat hidup di dunia. Dengan harta yang banyak melimpah-ruah manusia disanjungi dan dihormati oleh orang lain. Dengan harta yang banyak juga manusia boleh memiliki rumah besar, kereta besar, isteri yang cantik, makanan dan minuman yang enak. Harta dan wang ringgit menjadi rebutan kerana dengannya manusia boleh memilWanita solehah hiasan dunia paling baikiki segala-galanya; kesenangan hidup dan memenuhi tuntutan hawa nafsu.

Takhta atau pangkat satu lagi perkara yang menjadi rebutan manusia. Ada yang sanggup berpecah-belah, bermusuhan sesama saudara, dan sebagainya kerana hendakkan pangkat kedudukan di sisi masyarakat.

Cubalah kita ingat balik ayat-ayat Al-Quran yang menegaskan bahawa yang bermaksud pada hari tidak ada menafaat (faedah) harta dan anak-pinak kecuali sesiapa yang kembali kepada Allah dengan jiwa yang tenang.Kejar pangkat kerana harta...

Sama-sama kita renungkan. Adakah kita termasuk di dalam golongan jiwa-jiwa yang tenang? Atau kita masih belum puas mengejar tiga ta kerana memenuhi tuntutan nafsu syahwat? Bersediakah kita untuk bertemu dengan Allah dalam keadaan kita sekarang ini? Sama-sama kita fikirkan.

SPAQ

Al-Quran adalah panduan hidup bagi orang-orang yang beriman. Kitab Al-Quran adalah dustur (perlembagaan) bagi orang-orang yang beriman.

“Kitab (Al-Quran) ini tidak ada keraguan padanya; petunjuk bagi mereka yang bertaqwa” (Surah Al-Baqarah:2).

Sebagai seorang yang beriman dengan kitab suci Al-Quran, adakah kita mencintai dan menghayati akan isi kandungannya? Kita sedar Al-Quran adalah ayat-ayat Allah untuk menjadi pedoman kepada manusia mengharungi kehidupan di dunia ini.

Sesiapa yang berminat untuk mempelajari ilmu-ilmu yang berkaitan dengan Al-Quran seperti ulum ul-quran, tajwid, wirid al-quran, ayat-ayat ahkam ul-quran, al-quran di dalam pembinaan syakhsiyah dan masyarakat bolehlah mendaftar dengan Universiti Malaya bagi menyertai program yang dinamakan Sijil Pengajian Al-Quran (SPAQ) yang dijalankan pada hujung minggu dan kursus dirangka untuk kesesuaian semua lapisan masyarakat dan dari berbagai-bagai latarbelakang samada profesional ataupun bukan profesional. Untuk keterangan lanjut sila hubungi Akademi Pengajian Islam Universiti Malaysia.

The Big Bang

The Big Bang

By Zaghlool El-Naggar, Ph.D. 24/10/2002

 

In the Holy Quran we read (meaning):Haven’t the unbelievers seen that the heavens and the earth were joined together (in one singularity), then we clove both of them asunder.”  (21:30)This verse reflects the unity of creation as a dominating factor in the orderly form of the universe throughout its evolutionary history from one stage to another. However, long before discovering the established phenomenon of the red shift, and its logical consequence of describing our universe as an expanding one, scientists used Einstein’s theory of general relativity to extrapolate back in time and came to the striking conclusion that the universe had actually emerged from a single, unbelievably small, dense, hot region (the Hot Big Bang Model of the universe).

Formation of the Universe

George Gamow formally proposed the model in 1948, after a lengthy discussion on other models of the universe by a number of scientists (e.g. Albert Einstein, 1917; William de Sitter, 1917; Alexander Friedmann, 1922; George Lemaiyre, 1927, etc.).  Lemaitre is credited for introducing the idea of the “primeval atom”, where galaxies originated as fragments ejected by the explosion of this atom. In 1948, George Gamow modified Lemaitre’s hypothesis into the “Big Bang theory” of the origin of the universe. In this theory, Gamow proposed that the universe was created in a gigantic explosion, whereby the various elements observed today were produced within the first few minutes after the Big Bang, as the extremely high temperature and density of the universe would fuse subatomic particles into the chemical elements.

More recent calculations indicate that hydrogen and helium were the primary products of the Big Bang, with heavier elements being produced later within stars.   The extremely high density within the “primeval atom” would cause the universe to expand rapidly.  As it expanded, the smoky cloud of hydrogen and helium thus formed would cool and condense into nebulae stars, galaxies, clusters, super clusters, black holes, etc.This explains the original singularity of the universe; its explosion to a huge cloud of smoke from which the different heavenly bodies were formed by separation into eddies of various masses followed by condensation. The condensed bodies were arranged into stellar systems, clusters, galaxies, supergalaxies, etc., and the formed galaxies started to drift away from each other, causing the steady expansion of the universe. The Glorious Quran describes these three successive stages in the verses (21: 30), (41: 11) and (21: 104). The first and the third of these verses are discussed above, while the second reads (meaning):Then He (Allah) turned to the sky while it was smoke, and ordered it the earth to come into being willingly or unwillingly, they answered: we do come in willing obedience*” (41: 11)

Big Bang Evidence

As the universe expanded, the residual radiation (radiant heat) from the big bang continued to spread outwardly and to cool down gradually until about the 3K (= – 270°C) of today. This relic radiation was detected by radio astronomy in 1964, thus providing direct material evidence for “The Big Bang Model”. Further evidence in support of this model is provided by the chemical composition of the observed universe.  This amounts to about 74% hydrogen and 24 % helium (by mass), with only traces of other elements that in total amount to about 2%. All the recorded hydrogen in the observed universe and almost all the recorded helium are primordial, although some helium is currently produced by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in the sun as well as in other stars. Nevertheless, the total mass of hydrogen produced by the process of nuclear fusion within all the stars since the beginning of creation amounts to only a small percent. It is calculated that when the universe was 3 minutes old, its temperature must have been 109 °C (cf. Ohanian, 1985, p. D-6). At such a high temperature, hydrogen was subject to nuclear fusion, leading to the formation of helium. Theoretical calculations show that the fusion reactions led to an abundance of about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium, which is a remarkable agreement with the observed abundance. This further confirms the Hot Big Bang model for the creation of the universe.  The Hot Big Bang model has steadily and successfully battled other explanations for the origin of the universe, and the model has been gradually refined with time.

Hot to Cold

The “Hot Big Bang Model” for the origin of the universe envisages a beginning from an extremely small, hot, dense initial state some 10-15 billion years ago. This initial, minute body exploded and started to expand, forming the still expanding, vast, cold universe of today. The model predicts the formation of nuclei, the relative abundance of certain elements, and the existence and exact temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (or the glow of radiation left over from the initial explosion, which is currently permeating the universe).The prediction of the cosmic background radiation made by Ralph A. Alpher of Union College and Robert Herman of the University of Texas at Austin was confirmed by Arno Penzias and Robert W. Wilson of Bell Laboratories in 1964. Despite its success, the Hot Big Bang Model leaves many features of the universe unexplained.  For example, the universe today includes a vast number of regions that could never have been in causal contact at any stage in their entire history. These regions are moving away from one another at such a rate that any information, even traveling at the speed of light, could not cover the distance between them. This “horizon problem” makes it difficult to account for the striking uniformity of the cosmic background radiation (cf. J.J. Halliwell, 1991, p. 76).   Other unexplained features in the Hot Big Bang Model include the “flatness problem”, the origin of large scale structures such as galaxies, galactic clusters and super clusters, etc.

The Inflationary Universe

In 1980, Alan H. Guth of M.I.T. suggested a further refinement of the Big Bang model that he called “the inflationary universe scenario”.  In this scenario, the universe is believed to have started with a very brief, but exceedingly rapid period of expansion (for about 10-30 second), in which matter consisted of scalar-field particles (white in the Hot Big Bang model, the matter content of the universe is presumed to have been a uniformly distributed plasma or dust).  As mentioned by J.J. Halliwell (1991), the origin of the universe in the inflationary scenario can be explained as follows: by following the expansion of the universe backward in time, the size of this vast, complex universe tends towards zero. Here the strength of the gravitational field and the energy density of matter tend towards infinity. This means that the universe appears to have emerged from a singularity; a region of infinite curvature and energy density at which the known laws of physics break down. These conditions are a consequence of the famous ” singularity theorems”, proved in 1960 by Stephen W. Hawking and Roger Penrose of the University of Oxford. These theorems showed that under reasonable assumptions any model of the expanding universe extrapolated backward in time will encounter an initial singularity. The singularity theorems do not imply, however, that a singularity will physically occur.  Rather, the theory predicting them – classical general relativity – breaks down at very high curvatures and must be superseded by the quantum theory. Near a singularity, space – time becomes highly curved; its volume shrinks to very small dimensions, and here only the quantum theory can be applied. Quantum cosmologists began a few decades ago (since the 1960s) to address the problems of the origin and evolution of the universe in a more subtle way than that proposed by classical astronomy. Quantum cosmology attempts to describe a system – fundamentally – in terms of its wave function.  Yet many conceptual and technical difficulties arise. At the singularity, space becomes infinitely small, and the energy density infinitely great. To look beyond such a moment requires a complete, manageable quantum theory of gravity, which is currently lacking.Whether to accept the Hot Big Bang model of the universe, or its modified inflationary scenario explanations on the basis of conventional or quantum astronomy, the established fact is that our universe emerged from a single, infinitesimally small, dense, hot source. To agree or differ on the events that unfolded since that moment, including the formation of matter, followed by its coalescence into galaxies, stars, planets and chemical systems, does not change the fact of the one singularity from which our universe was created.The Quranic precedence with this fact at a time when nobody had the slightest knowledge of it, or even for several centuries after the revelation was received, is indeed most striking. The objective notion to this Quranic verse in the right context of a science course can indeed be spirit lifting and enlightening for the younger Muslim generations of students and faculty.

Dr. Zaghlool El-Naggar is a Fellow of the Islamic Academy of Sciences. Member of the Geological Society of London, the Geological Society of Egypt and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Fellow of the Institute of Petroleum, London. Prof. Naggar is the author/co-author of many books and more than 40 research papers in the field of Islamic Thought, Geology, General Science and Education. He was awarded by the Ministry of Education in Egypt the top “Secondary Education Award” as well as the seventh Arab Petroleum Congress Best Papers Award in 1970. Elected a member of the IAS Council (1994 and 1999), Prof. Naggar is currently working at the Arab Development Institute.

Source: http://www.islamonline.net/English/Science/2002/10/article11.shtml

Scientific Facts Revealed In The Qur’an

Scientific Facts Revealed In The Qur’an

By Z.R.M.El-Naggar, Ph.D., F.I.A.S.
Director, Markfield Institute of Higher Education
Leicestershire, U.K

The Holy Qur’an is basically a book of guidance, revealed by the Creator to address areas that cannot be answered by the human intellect such as the essence of faith, the acts of worship, the moral code and the rules and regulations that govern the various transactions between human beings. Besides this guidance, the glorious Qur’an refers to the cosmos, the earth and the heavens, as well as to many of their components, inhabitants and phenomena, in numerous verses that exceed 1000 in number. Such references come in the context of testifying to the unlimited might, knowledge and wisdom of the Creator who has brought this universe into being, and is capable of its annihilation and of its recreation. Consequently, the Qur’anic cosmic verses are not meant to be pieces of scientific information, but as scientific knowledge that has been left for man to gain over a long span of time. This is simply due to the limitations of the human senses and the cumulative nature of the scientific knowledge. The illustrious Qur’an, being the word of the Creator is, hence, the absolute truth, therefore Qur’anic verses with cosmic reflections must convey a number of absolute facts about the universe. Of these verses, a large number speak of the “earth”, which is mentioned 461 times throughout the Holy Qur’an to describe the whole planet, its outer rocky cover, or the soil section on top of that cover. Verses of geological interest amongst these amount to more than 110, and can be grouped into 11 categories as follows:

  1. One verse that instructs man to travel through the earth, make his own observations  and use such surveillances to reflect on how creation was originated (29:20).
  2. A group of verses that refer to the shape of the earth (13:3; 15:19; 26:28; 39:5; 50:7; 55:17; 65:12; 67; 70:40, 41); its motions (21:33; 36:40; 27:88; 12:3; 91: 1-4; 92:1,; 10:67; 77:10, 11; 27:71-73; 2:27; 29:61; 31:29; 35:13; 57:6; 36:37; 2:164; 3:190; 10:6; 23:80; 55:5; 14:33;) and its origin (21:30) where both the earth and the heavens are clearly described to have constituted (in their distant past) one entity (the initial singularity) before they split apart (Big Bang). This group also includes verses that emphasize the vastly distant positions of stars (56: 75, 76), the expanding nature of the universe (51:47), the smoky nature of the early sky (universe) (41:11, 12), the existence of the interstellar matter (20:6; 21:16; 25:59; 30:8; 32:4; 37:5; 38:10, 27, 66) and the concentric nature of both the heavens and the earth (the universe) (67:3); (71:15) and (65:12).( ) One verse stating that iron was sent down to us, thus emphasizing the celestial (extraterrestrial) origin of iron in our planet (57:25).

    3.  One verse that describes the deeply faulted nature of the earth (86:12).

    4.  A group of verses that describe some of the most recently discovered oceanographic phenomena such as:
     i) The superheated nature of the bottoms of certain seas and oceans – implying intensive submarine volcanic activity associated with sea-floor spreading.
     ii) The complete separation of different bodies of water (fresh and saline, as well as saline water of different compositions) that do not mix completely or immediately due to the constant presence of impassable barriers in between (25:53; 55:19, 20).
    iii) The multitude of darkness produced in the greatest depths of oceans by deep currents, topped by surface currents, topped by clouds (24:40).

   5.  One verse that describes mountains as pegs or pickets (78:7), emphasizing their relatively small, above-ground elevations, compared to their much more deeply buried parts (roots), and their role in the fixation of continental masses as well as of the whole planet. This role is emphasized in ten other verses that also ascribe more functions to mountains such as their part in the process of precipitation of rain and in the formation of natural heads for running streams (27: 61; 31: 10; 50:7; 77: 27; 79: 32). In this group, the Qur’an asks human beings to contemplate on a number of observations in the universe including how mountains are made to stand up on the surface of the earth (88:19). Such speculation has led to the formulation of the concept of isostacy which is currently used to explain the rising of mountains (and of all other surface elevations) above their surroundings. In another verse of this group (35:27), the Qur’an describes mountains as being composed of white and red tracts of various shades of colours and of others that are black and intense in hue. This is in clear reference to both acidic mountains (which are dominantly granitic in composition, with overwhelming white and red colours of various shades) and basic to ultrabasic mountains (which are dominantly basaltic/ gabbroic in composition with black coloured ferromagnesian minerals). Each of these major primary rock groups has its specific chemical and mineralogical compositions as well as its specific temperature of separation from its mother magma. Their dominant colours are also reflected in their secondary and/or tertiary products of sedimentary and metamorphic rock, and hence, the importance of these three principal colours (white, red and black) in the classification of igneous rocks and of their derivatives.

   6.  A group of verses that reflect on the earth’s hydrosphere and atmosphere, which are both clearly stated to have been outgassed from within the earth (LXXIX: 20, 31), a fact that has only very recently been discovered. Other verses in this group comment on the protective nature of the atmosphere for life on earth (21:32; 86: 11), the absolute darkness of outer space (15: 14, 15), the reduction of atmospheric pressure with elevation (6:125) and the glowing nature of the early nights of our planet before the formation of its protective atmospheric spheres (17:12).

    7.  A group of verses that emphasize the thinness of the earth’s crust (71:19), the constant levelling and degradation of the earth’s surface and the gradual change in the geographic dimensions of continental masses, and even the contraction of the whole planet and the deformation of its surface (13:41; 21:44; 78:6).

    8.  Verses emphasizing the fact that groundwater is generated from rain, thus reflecting on the hydro-geological cycle (23:18; 31:10), and others relating life on earth to water (21:30; 24:45) or reflecting on the possibility of classifying life forms (6:38).

    9.  Verses emphasizing the fact that the process of creation took place in successive stages over tremendously long spans of time (22:47; 32:5). 

   10. Two verses that describe the end of our planet and of the whole universe by reversing the process of its creation after which the eternal universe will be created (14:48).

Such knowledge was not available before the turn of the present century, and most of it has just started to be understood through the painstaking analysis of massive amounts of scientific observation. The Qur’anic precedence with such precise and comprehensive knowledge points to only one facet of the multifarious, miraculous nature of this Glorious Book, being the last Divine message, and the only one that has been kept intact with exactly the same language of revelation word for word and letter for letter for more than 14 centuries. From the above mentioned discussion it is obvious that Qur’anic verses with geological notions exceed 110 in number and would need voluminous texts to explain. Consequently, the present paper concentrates on only a few of these verses which represent established facts and concepts in the area of Earth Sciences and are only given as examples of the miraculous nature of the Holy Qur’an.