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The Cosmic “Smoke”

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The Cosmic “Smoke” *

In the first third of the 20th century, astronomers noticed the expansion of the universe, the thing that had previously aroused a lot of controversy before scientists could admit it. The glorious Qur’an referred to this fact more than 1,400 years ago:

[We [Allah] have built the heaven with (Our) Hands and surely We are indeed extending (it) wide.] (Adh-Dhariyat 51:47)

This verse was revealed at a time the whole world believed that the universe is stable and unchanging. This thought prevailed until the mid-20th century when astronomers discovered that the universe is expanding and its galaxies are getting distant from us and from each other at almost the speed of light (300,000 km/s). Besides, all the mathematical equations and the laws of physics support what astronomers found. Hence, astronomers, theoretical physicists, and astrophysicists assume that if we went back in time, we would find that all the visible and invisible forms of matter and energy in the cosmos must have been compressed in an elementary minute body whose size is almost zero, and where the dimensions of time and place contract.

 

This elementary body was in a state of density and heat that the human mind can hardly imagine and where there is no place for the laws of physics. This elementary body exploded, by Allah’s command, in what is called in the Qur’an Al-Fatq, which refers to the phase when the Earth and heavens exploded after being a one solid mass, and by scientists as the Big Bang. Thus, the Qur’an is the first to mention this great cosmic event exceeding any human knowledge; Almighty Allah says:

 

[And have not the ones who disbelieved seen that the heavens and the Earth were an integrated (mass), then We unseamed them, and of water We have made every living thing? Would they then not believe?(Al-Anbiyaa’ 21:30)

When an elementary body with these characteristics explodes, it turns into a cloud of smoke from which the Earth and all the celestial bodies were created. Again, the Qur’an exceeds all the human knowledge when it mentions the phase of “smoke” before 1,400 years, as follows:

 

[Say (O Muhammad), "Is it true that, indeed, you surely disbelieve in (The One) Who created the Earth in two days, and do you set up compeers to Him?" That is The Lord of the worlds. And He made therein anchorages (i.e. mountains) from above it, and He blessed it and determined therein its nourishments in four days, equal (i.e. all these four days were equal in the length of time) to the questioners (about its creation). Thereafter, He leveled Himself to the heaven (while) it was smoke, then said to it and to the Earth, "Come up (you two) willingly or unwillingly!" They (both) said, "We come up willingly." So He decreed them as seven heavens in two days, and He revealed in every heaven its Command. And We have adorned the lowest heaven with lamps, and (set Angels) preserving them. That is the determining of the Ever-Mighty, the Ever-Knowing.(Fussilat 41:9-12)

On the 8th of November, 1989, NASA launched its Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite in an orbit that is 600 km away from Earth and the effect of clouds and pollutants in the lower layers of the Earth’s atmosphere. Ten light years away from Earth, COBE sent millions of photos and information about the remnants of the smoke that resulted from the Big Bang. It was a phase of a dark smoke that had prevailed in the universe before the heavens and the Earth were created.

 

Allah, Exalted be He, has said 1,400 years ago:

 

[Thereafter, He leveled Himself to the heaven (while) it was smoke, then said to it and to the Earth, "Come up (you two) willingly or unwillingly!" They (both) said, "We come up willingly."]

Although we believe that these events are far from being known to us, as Almighty Allah says:

 [In no way did I make them to witness the creation of the heavens and the Earth, neither the creation of themselves; and in no way would I take to Me the misleaders as supporters.(Al-Kahf 18:51)

Yet, the constancy and continuity of the cosmic laws help us somehow to create a right image about these unknown events in spite of the limitedness of human senses and mental abilities on one hand and the limitedness of our time and space, on the other.

 

Besides, things such as long-range missiles, their satellites, and the sensitive recording and measuring devices helped a lot in forming an image of the cosmic dust (smoke) resulting from the Big Bang, whose remnants were found at the far end of the visible universe (up to 10 billion light years away). This served as evidence that the Qur’anic description “smoke” has not been chosen haphazardly and that it accurately describes the state of the universe before the creation of Earth and heavens.

 

Astrophysics and the Cosmic Smoke

After the Big Bang, the whole universe turned into a cloud of smoke from which the Earth and heavens were later created. Physical calculations tell us that the size of the universe before the Big Bang was almost zero, as both matter and energy were greatly compressed and the dimensions of time and place had no existence. After the explosion of this elementary body (the Big Bang), it turned into a ball of radiation and elementary particles that continued to expand and cool at a great speed until it turned into a cloud of smoke.

 

These physical calculations suggested that the heat of the universe during the first few seconds after the Big Bang was ranging from trillion Kelvin degrees up to billions of Kelvin degreesThis cloud of smoke consisted of photon, electron, and neutron particles and their antiparticles.

If the universe did not continue to cool and expand steadily and accurately, the elementary particles of the matter would have annihilated one another and the universe would have vanished. But, Allah, Who perfectly created everything, has maintained it.

A Qur’anic verse reads:

 

[His Command, if He wills a thing, is only to say to it,  "Be!" and it is.(Ya-Sin 36:82)

 


* Excerpted with modifications from the original article The Cosmic “Smoke”.

By  Dr. Zaghlool El-Naggar

Earth Sciences Professor — Egypt

 

 

 

Academy of Sciences. Member of the Geological Society of London, the Geological Society of Egypt and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Fellow of the Institute of Petroleum, London. Prof. Naggar is the author/co-author of many books and more than 40 research papers in the field of Islamic Thought, Geology, General Science and Education. He was awarded by the Ministry of Education in Egypt the top “Secondary Education Award” as well as the seventh Arab Petroleum Congress Best Papers Award in 1970. Elected a member of the IAS Council (1994 and 1999), Prof. Naggar is currently working at the Arab Development Institute.

 

Written by milkyway27

Mei 16, 2008 at 4:28 pm

Tiga Persoalan Asas Yang Mesti Dijawab

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Ada tiga persoalan asas yang perlu kita tanya diri kita sendiri.

  1. Dari mana kita datang?
  2. Kenapa kita datang ke muka bumi ini?
  3. Ke manakah kita akan dikembalikan?

Mari kita renung diri kita. Adakah kita pernah terfikir untuk mengeluarkan persoalan yang begitu asas ini di dalam hati kita? Bagi seorang jurutera, dia mungkin pernah menjawab soalan rumit termodinamik atau jet combustion. Bagi seorang doktor, dia mungkin pernah menyelesaikan masalah pengaliran darah di dalam otak atau soalan anatomi yang kompleks. Seorang jurutera nuklear pula mungkin pernah menemui formula atom yang sofistikated. Seorang pakar matematik pula mungkin pernah menjawab soalan kalkulus yang memerlukan super komputer untuk mencari penyelesaiannya. Tidak kurang juga seorang ahli astronomi membuat pengiraan yang panjang bagi kedudukan sesuatu bintang atau galaksi.

Walaupun soalan-soalan kompleks atau penemuan-penemuan yang canggih yang dijumpai oleh manusia di zaman ini, namun kita mesti kembali kepada tiga persoalan asas seperti di atas. Supaya kita mengenal siapa kita sebenarnya. Apa tujuan hidup kita di dunia ini. Adakah matinya kita sama seperti matinya kucing atau anjing di jalanan. Cuba kita lihat ke langit! Bagaimana burung-burung terbang Solat...salah satu ibadah kepada Allah Yang Maha Esa.di angkasa. Bagaimana jet direka. Kenapa turunnya hujan. Untuk apa. Untuk siapa. Berapa besar langit di hadapan kita. Berapa luas. Berapa jauh. Betapa cantiknya langit, awan, bulan, matahari, bintang, galaksi, dan bermacam-macam lagi yang kita lihat dengan mata kita atau dengan bantuan teleskop.

Ya Allah apa-apa yang Engkau jadikan ini tidaklah dengan sia-sia! Itulah ungkapan yang keluar dari lidah kita. Subhanallah.

 

Written by milkyway27

April 8, 2008 at 7:41 pm

The Cosmos in the Quran

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The Cosmos in the Quran

By Zaghlool El-Naggar, PhD 06/01/2003

The cosmos is collectively referred to in the Glorious Qur’an under the term “heavens and earth”,or simply “heavens” and sometimes in the singular form “heaven, firmament or sky”. Such reference is made in 310 Qur’anic verses (190 in the plural and 120 in the singular form) to describe certain characteristics of the universe, successive stages in its creation, its final destruction and annihilation, as well as its recreation.These cosmic verses intervene the main message of this divine revelation, as a vivid testimony to the unlimited might, knowledge and wisdom of the Creator (s.w.t). They are not meant to be pieces of scientific information per se, as science is left for man to gain over a long span of time through careful observation and/or experimentation, followed by rational conclusion. Nevertheless, the Qur’an being the word of the Creator (s.w.t.), and the cosmos being His creation, such cosmic Qur’anic verses must convey the absolute truth about areas that cannot possibly be placed under the direct observation of man, such as the creation, annihilation and recreation of the universe.

Mixtures of Truth and Fallacy

Consequently, early speculations about the origin of the universe in pre-Islamic civilizations, had glimpses of some facts borrowed from the successive divine revelations, but highly mixed with mythological assumptions and illusionary visions. An example for this mixture of truth and fallacies in polytheistic civilizations is the ancient Egyptians’ concept about the creation of the earth.This concept is symbolized in their legacy by drawing “Chou” (the mythological God of air), son of A’amoun Ra’a (the fictitious God of the Sun) in a position where he is separating his sister “Nutt” (symbolic for the heaven) from his brother “Kepp” (who stands for the earth). The concept of separating the earth from the rest of the universe is apparently a divinely revealed fact that was completely distorted in the ancient Egyptian mythology under the influence of deviation from monotheism to polytheism. Similarly, in the ancient Indian civilization, a cosmic nucleus (or Golden Egg) that symbolizes the origin of the universe was believed to have emerged from water. However, the Noble Qur’an forcefully invites man to observe the universe rationally with discernment, and analyze the data collected from such observation critically with meticulous assessment. It is only through such scientific questioning of the universe that man can discover the laws of creation, and apply them correctly for the proper fulfillment of his vicegerency on earth.  This can be achieved by the successful development of man, his faculties and knowledge, and of life in general, as well as by rational reflection on the supremacy of The Creator, and hence the willful submission to His glory, peacefully and lovingly in worshipping and obedience.

An Ever-Expanding Universe

The discovery of the perfect concordance between the Qur’anic descriptions of the universe and its established facts can be a very convincing proof for the divine nature of the Qur’an and the authentic prophethood of Mohammad (p.b.u.h.). Not only this, but the Qur’an can be a guiding light in the area of cosmogenic interpretations, because this is an area that can never fall directly under human observation, despite the abundant traces for the successive stages of creation which are still preserved in outer space. Out of the 310 Qur’anic verses where the cosmos is mentioned, at least 166 carry evident cosmological and cosmogenic implications. One such verse describes the expanding nature of the universe.

“The Qur’an reads: والسماء بنيناها بأيد وإنا لموسعون – سورة الذاريات

“And the firmament We have verily built with might, and verily we are expanding it*” (51:47)”

Early commentators on the Holy Qur’an saw the significance of this verse in the context of the amazing vastness of the universe, and in the fact that whoever could make it that vast, is definitely capable of making it even much more enormous, extending its limits outwardly much further, and this is very true. However, after centuries of keen observations, and numerous hypotheses, theorems and interpretations, the American astronomer Vesto M. Slipher noticed in 1912 that, except for a few nearby systems such as the Andromeda galaxy, the spectral lines from the rest of the galaxies were shifted toward longer (red) wavelengths. This shift in wavelength, caused by the Doppler effect, showed that most galaxies were receding from ours (the Milky Way) at several hundred kilometers per second. In 1929, another American astronomer, Edwin Powell Hubble, noticed that the more remote the galaxy, the higher was its recession velocity.  This important relationship has become known as the law of the red shifts, or Hubble’s law. It states that the recession velocity of a galaxy is proportional to its distance. The ratio of the recession velocity of a galaxy to its distance (generally known as the Hubble constant) is now estimated to be between 50 and 100 km/sec per megaparsec (1 megaparsec = 1 million parsec, and 1 parsec = 3.258 light years).   After discovering this cosmic phenomenon of red shift, there was no other plausible explanation for it except the implication that our universe is indeed steadily expanding. Because galaxies in all directions seem to recede from our own galaxy, it might be wrongly concluded that the Milky Way is at the center of the universe. This is not true, as one can imagine a balloon with evenly spaced dots painted on its outer surface. As the balloon is blown up, an observer on each spot would see all the other spots expanding away from it, just as observers from earth see all the galaxies receding from the Milky Way.  This analogy provides a simple explanation for Hubble’s law: the universe is expanding like a balloon. This simple cosmological fact, which was deduced from the red shift phenomenon less than 70 years ago, had already been explicitly mentioned in the Holy Qur’an 14 centuries earlier.  This long precedence of the Qur’an to thousands of scientists who spent many centuries of astronomical observations and research using sophisticated equipment and elaborate physical properties and mathematical calculations, is a living testimony to the divine purity of this last revelation and to the authenticity of the propethood of Mohammad (peace be upon him) who received and passed it in its divine purity. The established fact that our universe is steadily expanding is so vital for both its physical existence and survival, that it becomes well deserving to be mentioned in the Illustrious Qur’an as one of the great signs of The Creator (S.W.T.). Not only this, but for our universe to be steadily expanding at such fantastic rates without losing its coherence is one of the most striking and most fascinating aspects of our existence.


Dr. Zaghlool El-Naggar is a Fellow of the Islamic Academy of Sciences. Member of the Geological Society of London, the Geological Society of Egypt and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Fellow of the Institute of Petroleum, London. Prof. Naggar is the author/co-author of many books and more than 40 research papers in the field of Islamic Thought, Geology, General Science and Education. He was awarded by the Ministry of Education in Egypt the top “Secondary Education Award” as well as the seventh Arab Petroleum Congress Best Papers Award in 1970. Elected a member of the IAS Council (1994 and 1999), Prof. Naggar is currently working at the Arab Development Institute.

Source:  http://www.islamonline.net/English/Science/2003/01/article03.shtml

Written by milkyway27

Disember 17, 2007 at 10:29 am

Dikirim dalam Universe

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The Big Bang

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The Big Bang

By Zaghlool El-Naggar, Ph.D. 24/10/2002

 

In the Holy Quran we read (meaning):Haven’t the unbelievers seen that the heavens and the earth were joined together (in one singularity), then we clove both of them asunder.”  (21:30)This verse reflects the unity of creation as a dominating factor in the orderly form of the universe throughout its evolutionary history from one stage to another. However, long before discovering the established phenomenon of the red shift, and its logical consequence of describing our universe as an expanding one, scientists used Einstein’s theory of general relativity to extrapolate back in time and came to the striking conclusion that the universe had actually emerged from a single, unbelievably small, dense, hot region (the Hot Big Bang Model of the universe).

Formation of the Universe

George Gamow formally proposed the model in 1948, after a lengthy discussion on other models of the universe by a number of scientists (e.g. Albert Einstein, 1917; William de Sitter, 1917; Alexander Friedmann, 1922; George Lemaiyre, 1927, etc.).  Lemaitre is credited for introducing the idea of the “primeval atom”, where galaxies originated as fragments ejected by the explosion of this atom. In 1948, George Gamow modified Lemaitre’s hypothesis into the “Big Bang theory” of the origin of the universe. In this theory, Gamow proposed that the universe was created in a gigantic explosion, whereby the various elements observed today were produced within the first few minutes after the Big Bang, as the extremely high temperature and density of the universe would fuse subatomic particles into the chemical elements.

More recent calculations indicate that hydrogen and helium were the primary products of the Big Bang, with heavier elements being produced later within stars.   The extremely high density within the “primeval atom” would cause the universe to expand rapidly.  As it expanded, the smoky cloud of hydrogen and helium thus formed would cool and condense into nebulae stars, galaxies, clusters, super clusters, black holes, etc.This explains the original singularity of the universe; its explosion to a huge cloud of smoke from which the different heavenly bodies were formed by separation into eddies of various masses followed by condensation. The condensed bodies were arranged into stellar systems, clusters, galaxies, supergalaxies, etc., and the formed galaxies started to drift away from each other, causing the steady expansion of the universe. The Glorious Quran describes these three successive stages in the verses (21: 30), (41: 11) and (21: 104). The first and the third of these verses are discussed above, while the second reads (meaning):Then He (Allah) turned to the sky while it was smoke, and ordered it the earth to come into being willingly or unwillingly, they answered: we do come in willing obedience*” (41: 11)

Big Bang Evidence

As the universe expanded, the residual radiation (radiant heat) from the big bang continued to spread outwardly and to cool down gradually until about the 3K (= – 270°C) of today. This relic radiation was detected by radio astronomy in 1964, thus providing direct material evidence for “The Big Bang Model”. Further evidence in support of this model is provided by the chemical composition of the observed universe.  This amounts to about 74% hydrogen and 24 % helium (by mass), with only traces of other elements that in total amount to about 2%. All the recorded hydrogen in the observed universe and almost all the recorded helium are primordial, although some helium is currently produced by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in the sun as well as in other stars. Nevertheless, the total mass of hydrogen produced by the process of nuclear fusion within all the stars since the beginning of creation amounts to only a small percent. It is calculated that when the universe was 3 minutes old, its temperature must have been 109 °C (cf. Ohanian, 1985, p. D-6). At such a high temperature, hydrogen was subject to nuclear fusion, leading to the formation of helium. Theoretical calculations show that the fusion reactions led to an abundance of about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium, which is a remarkable agreement with the observed abundance. This further confirms the Hot Big Bang model for the creation of the universe.  The Hot Big Bang model has steadily and successfully battled other explanations for the origin of the universe, and the model has been gradually refined with time.

Hot to Cold

The “Hot Big Bang Model” for the origin of the universe envisages a beginning from an extremely small, hot, dense initial state some 10-15 billion years ago. This initial, minute body exploded and started to expand, forming the still expanding, vast, cold universe of today. The model predicts the formation of nuclei, the relative abundance of certain elements, and the existence and exact temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (or the glow of radiation left over from the initial explosion, which is currently permeating the universe).The prediction of the cosmic background radiation made by Ralph A. Alpher of Union College and Robert Herman of the University of Texas at Austin was confirmed by Arno Penzias and Robert W. Wilson of Bell Laboratories in 1964. Despite its success, the Hot Big Bang Model leaves many features of the universe unexplained.  For example, the universe today includes a vast number of regions that could never have been in causal contact at any stage in their entire history. These regions are moving away from one another at such a rate that any information, even traveling at the speed of light, could not cover the distance between them. This “horizon problem” makes it difficult to account for the striking uniformity of the cosmic background radiation (cf. J.J. Halliwell, 1991, p. 76).   Other unexplained features in the Hot Big Bang Model include the “flatness problem”, the origin of large scale structures such as galaxies, galactic clusters and super clusters, etc.

The Inflationary Universe

In 1980, Alan H. Guth of M.I.T. suggested a further refinement of the Big Bang model that he called “the inflationary universe scenario”.  In this scenario, the universe is believed to have started with a very brief, but exceedingly rapid period of expansion (for about 10-30 second), in which matter consisted of scalar-field particles (white in the Hot Big Bang model, the matter content of the universe is presumed to have been a uniformly distributed plasma or dust).  As mentioned by J.J. Halliwell (1991), the origin of the universe in the inflationary scenario can be explained as follows: by following the expansion of the universe backward in time, the size of this vast, complex universe tends towards zero. Here the strength of the gravitational field and the energy density of matter tend towards infinity. This means that the universe appears to have emerged from a singularity; a region of infinite curvature and energy density at which the known laws of physics break down. These conditions are a consequence of the famous ” singularity theorems”, proved in 1960 by Stephen W. Hawking and Roger Penrose of the University of Oxford. These theorems showed that under reasonable assumptions any model of the expanding universe extrapolated backward in time will encounter an initial singularity. The singularity theorems do not imply, however, that a singularity will physically occur.  Rather, the theory predicting them – classical general relativity – breaks down at very high curvatures and must be superseded by the quantum theory. Near a singularity, space – time becomes highly curved; its volume shrinks to very small dimensions, and here only the quantum theory can be applied. Quantum cosmologists began a few decades ago (since the 1960s) to address the problems of the origin and evolution of the universe in a more subtle way than that proposed by classical astronomy. Quantum cosmology attempts to describe a system – fundamentally – in terms of its wave function.  Yet many conceptual and technical difficulties arise. At the singularity, space becomes infinitely small, and the energy density infinitely great. To look beyond such a moment requires a complete, manageable quantum theory of gravity, which is currently lacking.Whether to accept the Hot Big Bang model of the universe, or its modified inflationary scenario explanations on the basis of conventional or quantum astronomy, the established fact is that our universe emerged from a single, infinitesimally small, dense, hot source. To agree or differ on the events that unfolded since that moment, including the formation of matter, followed by its coalescence into galaxies, stars, planets and chemical systems, does not change the fact of the one singularity from which our universe was created.The Quranic precedence with this fact at a time when nobody had the slightest knowledge of it, or even for several centuries after the revelation was received, is indeed most striking. The objective notion to this Quranic verse in the right context of a science course can indeed be spirit lifting and enlightening for the younger Muslim generations of students and faculty.

Dr. Zaghlool El-Naggar is a Fellow of the Islamic Academy of Sciences. Member of the Geological Society of London, the Geological Society of Egypt and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Fellow of the Institute of Petroleum, London. Prof. Naggar is the author/co-author of many books and more than 40 research papers in the field of Islamic Thought, Geology, General Science and Education. He was awarded by the Ministry of Education in Egypt the top “Secondary Education Award” as well as the seventh Arab Petroleum Congress Best Papers Award in 1970. Elected a member of the IAS Council (1994 and 1999), Prof. Naggar is currently working at the Arab Development Institute.

Source: http://www.islamonline.net/English/Science/2002/10/article11.shtml

Written by milkyway27

Disember 11, 2007 at 12:14 am

Dikirim dalam Universe

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Scientific Facts Revealed In The Qur’an

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Scientific Facts Revealed In The Qur’an

By Z.R.M.El-Naggar, Ph.D., F.I.A.S.
Director, Markfield Institute of Higher Education
Leicestershire, U.K

The Holy Qur’an is basically a book of guidance, revealed by the Creator to address areas that cannot be answered by the human intellect such as the essence of faith, the acts of worship, the moral code and the rules and regulations that govern the various transactions between human beings. Besides this guidance, the glorious Qur’an refers to the cosmos, the earth and the heavens, as well as to many of their components, inhabitants and phenomena, in numerous verses that exceed 1000 in number. Such references come in the context of testifying to the unlimited might, knowledge and wisdom of the Creator who has brought this universe into being, and is capable of its annihilation and of its recreation. Consequently, the Qur’anic cosmic verses are not meant to be pieces of scientific information, but as scientific knowledge that has been left for man to gain over a long span of time. This is simply due to the limitations of the human senses and the cumulative nature of the scientific knowledge. The illustrious Qur’an, being the word of the Creator is, hence, the absolute truth, therefore Qur’anic verses with cosmic reflections must convey a number of absolute facts about the universe. Of these verses, a large number speak of the “earth”, which is mentioned 461 times throughout the Holy Qur’an to describe the whole planet, its outer rocky cover, or the soil section on top of that cover. Verses of geological interest amongst these amount to more than 110, and can be grouped into 11 categories as follows:

  1. One verse that instructs man to travel through the earth, make his own observations  and use such surveillances to reflect on how creation was originated (29:20).
  2. A group of verses that refer to the shape of the earth (13:3; 15:19; 26:28; 39:5; 50:7; 55:17; 65:12; 67; 70:40, 41); its motions (21:33; 36:40; 27:88; 12:3; 91: 1-4; 92:1,; 10:67; 77:10, 11; 27:71-73; 2:27; 29:61; 31:29; 35:13; 57:6; 36:37; 2:164; 3:190; 10:6; 23:80; 55:5; 14:33;) and its origin (21:30) where both the earth and the heavens are clearly described to have constituted (in their distant past) one entity (the initial singularity) before they split apart (Big Bang). This group also includes verses that emphasize the vastly distant positions of stars (56: 75, 76), the expanding nature of the universe (51:47), the smoky nature of the early sky (universe) (41:11, 12), the existence of the interstellar matter (20:6; 21:16; 25:59; 30:8; 32:4; 37:5; 38:10, 27, 66) and the concentric nature of both the heavens and the earth (the universe) (67:3); (71:15) and (65:12).( ) One verse stating that iron was sent down to us, thus emphasizing the celestial (extraterrestrial) origin of iron in our planet (57:25).

    3.  One verse that describes the deeply faulted nature of the earth (86:12).

    4.  A group of verses that describe some of the most recently discovered oceanographic phenomena such as:
     i) The superheated nature of the bottoms of certain seas and oceans – implying intensive submarine volcanic activity associated with sea-floor spreading.
     ii) The complete separation of different bodies of water (fresh and saline, as well as saline water of different compositions) that do not mix completely or immediately due to the constant presence of impassable barriers in between (25:53; 55:19, 20).
    iii) The multitude of darkness produced in the greatest depths of oceans by deep currents, topped by surface currents, topped by clouds (24:40).

   5.  One verse that describes mountains as pegs or pickets (78:7), emphasizing their relatively small, above-ground elevations, compared to their much more deeply buried parts (roots), and their role in the fixation of continental masses as well as of the whole planet. This role is emphasized in ten other verses that also ascribe more functions to mountains such as their part in the process of precipitation of rain and in the formation of natural heads for running streams (27: 61; 31: 10; 50:7; 77: 27; 79: 32). In this group, the Qur’an asks human beings to contemplate on a number of observations in the universe including how mountains are made to stand up on the surface of the earth (88:19). Such speculation has led to the formulation of the concept of isostacy which is currently used to explain the rising of mountains (and of all other surface elevations) above their surroundings. In another verse of this group (35:27), the Qur’an describes mountains as being composed of white and red tracts of various shades of colours and of others that are black and intense in hue. This is in clear reference to both acidic mountains (which are dominantly granitic in composition, with overwhelming white and red colours of various shades) and basic to ultrabasic mountains (which are dominantly basaltic/ gabbroic in composition with black coloured ferromagnesian minerals). Each of these major primary rock groups has its specific chemical and mineralogical compositions as well as its specific temperature of separation from its mother magma. Their dominant colours are also reflected in their secondary and/or tertiary products of sedimentary and metamorphic rock, and hence, the importance of these three principal colours (white, red and black) in the classification of igneous rocks and of their derivatives.

   6.  A group of verses that reflect on the earth’s hydrosphere and atmosphere, which are both clearly stated to have been outgassed from within the earth (LXXIX: 20, 31), a fact that has only very recently been discovered. Other verses in this group comment on the protective nature of the atmosphere for life on earth (21:32; 86: 11), the absolute darkness of outer space (15: 14, 15), the reduction of atmospheric pressure with elevation (6:125) and the glowing nature of the early nights of our planet before the formation of its protective atmospheric spheres (17:12).

    7.  A group of verses that emphasize the thinness of the earth’s crust (71:19), the constant levelling and degradation of the earth’s surface and the gradual change in the geographic dimensions of continental masses, and even the contraction of the whole planet and the deformation of its surface (13:41; 21:44; 78:6).

    8.  Verses emphasizing the fact that groundwater is generated from rain, thus reflecting on the hydro-geological cycle (23:18; 31:10), and others relating life on earth to water (21:30; 24:45) or reflecting on the possibility of classifying life forms (6:38).

    9.  Verses emphasizing the fact that the process of creation took place in successive stages over tremendously long spans of time (22:47; 32:5). 

   10. Two verses that describe the end of our planet and of the whole universe by reversing the process of its creation after which the eternal universe will be created (14:48).

Such knowledge was not available before the turn of the present century, and most of it has just started to be understood through the painstaking analysis of massive amounts of scientific observation. The Qur’anic precedence with such precise and comprehensive knowledge points to only one facet of the multifarious, miraculous nature of this Glorious Book, being the last Divine message, and the only one that has been kept intact with exactly the same language of revelation word for word and letter for letter for more than 14 centuries. From the above mentioned discussion it is obvious that Qur’anic verses with geological notions exceed 110 in number and would need voluminous texts to explain. Consequently, the present paper concentrates on only a few of these verses which represent established facts and concepts in the area of Earth Sciences and are only given as examples of the miraculous nature of the Holy Qur’an.

Written by milkyway27

Disember 10, 2007 at 11:49 am

Dikirim dalam Universe

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Jom Kita Berfikir Sejenak!

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“Saya kurang berminat dengan subjek sains,” kata Khadijah dari aliran sastera. “Ilmu sains susahlah, kena banyak menghafal dan pandai matematik,” tambah Muaz yang mengambil jurusan perakaunan.

Pokoknya, samada kita meminati subjek sains atau tidak, sedikit sebanyak kita perlu mempelajarinya. Sekiranya kita membaca Al-Quran, banyak ayat-ayat Allah yang menyebut tentang kejadian alam semesta atau disebut “universe” dalam BI.

Alam ciptaan AllahFirman Allah swt:

“Dan apakah orang-orang yang kafir tidak mengetahui bahawasanya langit dan bumi itu keduanya dahulu adalah suatu yang padu, kemudian Kami pisahkan antara keduanya. Dan dari air Kami jadikan segala sesuatu yang hidup. Maka mengapakah mereka tiada juga beriman? (Surah Al-Anbiyaa': 30)

Segala sesuatu yang diciptakan oleh Allah Taala menunjukkan dan membuktikan bahawa Allah Taala adalah Zat Yang Maha Esa. Di sini diketengahkan sedikit contoh-contoh dan selebihnya boleh diperkayakan dengan mengkaji apa yang telah dipaparkan oleh kitab Allah (Al-Quran) tentang kebesaran, keagungan, dan kekuasaan Allah Taala yang terdapat pada kitabNya yang terlihat; alam semesta yang luas ini.

Telah terbit beberapa buah buku yang membahas dengan terperinci tentang sebahagian rahsia alam yang telah ditemukan oleh ilmu pengetahuan moden, yang semuanya menjadi bukti yang nyata bagi wujudnya Allah, keMaha EsaanNya, dan kesempurnaanNya.

Apabila kita melihat bumi yang ada di alam yang sangat luas ini, maka kelihatannya amat besar dibanding dengan diri kita. Akan tetapi, apabila kita meninggalkannya sejenak, lalu memandang hamparan cakerawala serta galaksi-galaksi, bintang-bintang dan planet-planet yang ada padanya dan ditambah lagi dengan pengetahuan kita tentang penemuan ilmu moden tentang pelbagai maklumat berkenaan jumlah planet, bentuknya, besarnya, jauhnya, dan kecepatannya, maka akal kita tidak mampu menggambarkan hal tersebut. Matahari memiliki ukuran 1 250 000 kali ganda dari ukuran bumi, dan masih ada beberapa bintang yang besarnya berjuta kali ganda dari besarnya matahari.

Alam ciptaan AllahSemua planet beredar pada orbitnya masing-masing dengan tertib; tanpa terjadi perlanggaran atau kesalahan teknikal. Itulah ketentuan Zat Yang Maha Perkasa lagi Maha Mengetahui. Unit yang digunakan untuk mengukur jarak antara bintang-bintang tersebut adalah tahun cahaya; yakni jarak yang dapat dilalui oleh cahaya dalam masa setahun. Padahal kecepatan cahaya ialah 300 000 km sesaat (jarak yang ditempuhi iaitu 300 ribu km dalam masa satu saat). Sebahagian cendikiawan dalam bidang astronomi mengatakan bahawa ada bintang yang jaraknya dengan kita adalah ratusan juta tahun cahaya malah ada yang bilion tahun cahaya. Maha Benar Allah yang telah berfirman:

“Maka Aku bersumpah dengan tempat beredarnya bintang-bintang. Sesungguhnya sumpah itu adalah sumpah yang besar kalau kamu mengetahui.” (Surah Al-Waqi’ah: 75-76).

Dan sekarang setelah 14 abad dari turunnya ayat-ayat tersebut kita mulai sedikit demi sedikit mengenali tempat beredarnya berbagai-bagai bintang serta kebesarannya. Sedang Allah swt berfirman:

Alam ciptaan Allah“Dan langit itu Kami bangun dengan kekuasaan (Kami)dan sesungguhnya Kami benar-benar meluaskannya. Dan bumi itu kami hamparkan; maka sebaik yang menghamparkan (adalah Kami).” (Surah Al-Zariyat: 47-48).

Apabila kita memperhatikan ketelitian yang tiada bandingnya dalam berbagai aturan yang telah ditetapkan oleh Allah untuk matahari, bumi dan bulan; iaitu jaraknya, kecepatannya, keseimbangannya, peredarannya, dan ukurannya yang semuanya memudahkan kehidupan di muka bumi, sehingga kita dapat menghirup udara yang sesuai dan dapat mengetahui bilangan tahun. Maka Maha Suci Allah yang telah menciptakan segala sesuatu dan menentukan ukuran-ukurannya.

Written by milkyway27

November 23, 2007 at 7:26 am

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